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M8040A Datasheet(PDF) 7 Page - Keysight Technologies

Part No. M8040A
Description  M8040A High-Performance BERT 64 GBaud
Download  28 Pages
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Maker  KEYSIGHT [Keysight Technologies]
Homepage  http://www.keysight.com
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M8040A Datasheet(HTML) 7 Page - Keysight Technologies

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07 | Keysight | M8040A High-Performance BERT 64 GBaud - Data Sheet
Master PAM-4 receiver test challenges with M8040A
Design and test engineers who need to characterize devices that support PAM-4 data formats
are facing new test challenges in addition to the signal integrity issues known from 25 Gb/s
NRZ device testing.
For PAM-4 input receiver tolerance test, this means impairments that may occur in the real-
world should be tolerated by the receiver under test without exceeding the desired BER level.
Typcial receiver tests include jitter tolerance, interference tolerance test and level sensitivity
margins that are applicable for NRZ and PAM-4 devices. In addition PAM-4 receivers require
additional margin testing for level non-linearity, cross-talk effects from adjacent lanes and
vertical eye closure.
0.67 A Max
A Max
ideal
real-world
Figure 8. PAM-4 eyes can show a level separation mismatch. Receivers must be able to detect the digital signal content
properly within the given mismatch ratio.
Real-time error analysis for PAM-4 and NRZ signals
Receiver verification checks if the receiver under test operates below the specified BER while
emulating the worst-case transmitter and channel conditions.
BER measurements are well established for NRZ signals by using a traditional BERT, but what
does this mean for PAM-4 signals?
For proper error detection of PAM-4 signals, all thresholds (V
low, Vmid, and Vupper) have to be
analyzed simultaneously to ensure a correct symbol error measurement. (See Figure 8.) If a
“1“ is detected at the V
mid threshold, the received pattern can have level 2 or 3. Only if the
level detected at V
upp is checked simultaneously with Vmid, it can be determined if the received
inputs have the correct level for a 2 or a 3. If two thresholds are errored within one UI, this case
translates just into one symbol error.
Data In
Detecting
1
0
Threshold Vupp
= 3
= 0 or 1 or 2?
Threshold Vmid
= 2 or 3?
= 0 or 1?
Threshold Vlow
= 1 or 2 or 3?
= 0
3
0
1
2
PAM -4 Vupp
Vmid Vlow Gray
3
1
1
1
1 0
2
0
1
1
1 1
1
0
0
1
0 1
0
0
0
0
0 0
Figure 9. Only a true PAM-4 error analyzer like M8040A, can provide a PAM-4 symbol error rate in real-time without
post-processing. Error ratios down to 10–15 or error-free can be measured even for long PRBS 2 31–1, QPRBS13-CEI or
QPRBS31-CEI patterns. Errored 0,1,2,3 and symbol errors can be counted separately for further debugging.


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