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DS90LV031B Datasheet(PDF) 6 Page - National Semiconductor (TI)

[Old version datasheet] Texas Instruments acquired National semiconductor.
Part # DS90LV031B
Description  3V LVDS Quad CMOS Differential Line Driver
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Manufacturer  NSC [National Semiconductor (TI)]
Direct Link  http://www.national.com
Logo NSC - National Semiconductor (TI)

DS90LV031B Datasheet(HTML) 6 Page - National Semiconductor (TI)

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Applications Information (Continued)
The TRI-STATE function allows the driver outputs to be dis-
abled, thus obtaining an even lower power state when the
transmission of data is not required.
The footprint of the DS90LV031B is the same as the industry
standard 26LS31 Quad Differential (RS-422) Driver and is a
step down replacement for the 5V DS90C031 Quad Driver.
Power Decoupling Recommendations:
Bypass capacitors must be used on power pins. High fre-
quency ceramic (surface mount is recommended) 0.1µF in
parallel with 0.01µF, in parallel with 0.001µF at the power
supply pin as well as scattered capacitors over the printed
circuit board. Multiple vias should be used to connect the de-
coupling capacitors to the power planes. A 10µF (35V) or
greater solid tantalum capacitor should be connected at the
power entry point on the printed circuit board.
PC Board considerations:
Use at least 4 PCB layers (top to bottom); LVDS signals,
ground, power, TTL signals.
Isolate TTL signals from LVDS signals, otherwise the TTL
may couple onto the LVDS lines. It is best to put TTL and
LVDS signals on different layers which are isolated by a
power/ground plane(s).
Keep drivers and receivers as close to the (LVDS port side)
connectors as possible.
Differential Traces:
Use controlled impedance traces which match the differen-
tial impedance of your transmission medium (ie. cable) and
termination resistor. Run the differential pair trace lines as
close together as possible as soon as they leave the IC
(stubs should be < 10mm long). This will help eliminate re-
flections and ensure noise is coupled as common-mode. In
fact, we have seen that differential signals which are 1mm
apart radiate far less noise than traces 3mm apart since
magnetic field cancellation is much better with the closer
traces. Plus, noise induced on the differential lines is much
more likely to appear as common-mode which is rejected by
the receiver.
Match electrical lengths between traces to reduce skew.
Skew between the signals of a pair means a phase differ-
ence between signals which destroys the magnetic field can-
cellation benefits of differential signals and EMI will result.
(Note the velocity of propagation, v = c/Er where c (the
speed of light) = 0.2997mm/ps or 0.0118 in/ps). Do not rely
solely on the autoroute function for differential traces. Care-
fully review dimensions to match differential impedance and
provide isolation for the differential lines. Minimize the num-
ber or vias and other discontinuities on the line.
Avoid 90˚ turns (these cause impedance discontinuities).
Use arcs or 45˚ bevels.
Within a pair of traces, the distance between the two traces
should be minimized to maintain common-mode rejection of
the receivers. On the printed circuit board, this distance
should remain constant to avoid discontinuities in differential
impedance. Minor violations at connection points are allow-
Use a resistor which best matches the differential impedance
or your transmission line. The resistor should be between
Ω and 130Ω. Remember that the current mode outputs
need the termination resistor to generate the differential volt-
age. LVDS will not work without resistor termination. Typi-
cally, connect a single resistor across the pair at the receiver
Surface mount 1% to 2% resistors are best. PCB stubs,
component lead, and the distance from the termination to the
receiver inputs should be minimized. The distance between
the termination resistor and the receiver should be < 10mm
(12mm MAX).
Probing LVDS Transmission Lines:
Always use high impedance (> 100k
Ω), low capacitance
(< 2pF) scope probes with a wide bandwidth (1GHz) scope.
Improper probing will give deceiving results.
Cables and Connectors, General Comments:
When choosing cable and connectors for LVDS it is impor-
tant to remember:
Use controlled impedance media. The cables and connec-
tors you use should have a matched differential impedance
of about 100
Ω. They should not introduce major impedance
Balanced cables (e.g. twisted pair) are usually better than
unbalanced cables (ribbon cable, simple coax.) for noise re-
duction and signal quality. Balanced cables tend to generate
less EMI due to field canceling effects and also tend to pick
up electromagnetic radiation a common-mode (not differen-
tial mode) noise which is rejected by the receiver. For cable
distances < 0.5M, most cables can be made to work effec-
tively. For distances 0.5M
≤ d ≤ 10M, CAT 3 (category 3)
twisted pair cable works well, is readily available and rela-
tively inexpensive.
Fail-safe Feature:
The LVDS receiver is a high gain, high speed device that
amplifies a small differential signal (20mV) to CMOS logic
levels. Due to the high gain and tight threshold of the re-
ceiver, care should be taken to prevent noise from appearing
as a valid signal.
The receiver’s internal fail-safe circuitry is designed to
source/sink a small amount of current, providing fail-safe
protection (a stable known state of HIGH output voltage) for
floating, terminated or shorted receiver inputs.
Open Input Pins. The DS90LV032A is a quad receiver
device, and if an application requires only 1, 2 or 3 re-
ceivers, the unused channel(s) inputs should be left
OPEN. Do not tie unused receiver inputs to ground or
any other voltages. The input is biased by internal high
value pull up and pull down resistors to set the output to
a HIGH state. This internal circuitry will guarantee a
HIGH, stable output state for open inputs.
Terminated Input. If the driver is disconnected (cable
unplugged), or if the driver is in a TRI-STATE or power-
off condition, the receiver output will again be in a HIGH
state, even with the end of cable 100
Ω termination resis-
tor across the input pins. The unplugged cable can be-
come a floating antenna which can pick up noise. If the
cable picks up more than 10mV of differential noise, the
receiver may see the noise as a valid signal and switch.
To insure that any noise is seen as common-mode and
not differential, a balanced interconnect should be used.
Twisted pair cable will offer better balance than flat rib-
bon cable.

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