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VTL5C1 Datasheet(PDF) 70 Page - PerkinElmer Optoelectronics

Part # VTL5C1
Description  Photoconductive Cells and Analog Optoisolators (Vactrols)
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Manufacturer  PERKINELMER [PerkinElmer Optoelectronics]
Direct Link  http://www.perkinelmer.com
Logo PERKINELMER - PerkinElmer Optoelectronics

VTL5C1 Datasheet(HTML) 70 Page - PerkinElmer Optoelectronics

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Application Notes—Analog Optical Isolators
Figure 9 shows an AGC circuit which consists of three main elements:
a variable gain amplifier, full-wave active rectifier and a summing
amplifier. The variable gain amplifier consists of op-amp A1 with
potentiometric gain that is controlled by the resistance of the photocell
of the AOI. The gain of this amplifier is:
Gain = 1 + R2 / RPHOTOCELL
With R2 = 100k ohms, the minimum gain is one since the cell “off”
resistance is several megohms. The maximum gain in only 100 since
the resistance of a typical VTL5C2 is 1000 ohms at an input current of
5.0 mA. If a range of 40 db (100:1) is not adequate, there are several
options. R2 can be increased, the LED drive current for the AOI can be
increased or a lower resistance AOI such as the VTL5C4 can be used.
Amplifier A2 together with diodes D1 and D2 and resistors R3, R4, and
R5 form a full-wave rectifier. The amplifier has a gain of one so the
output is equal to the rectified input. There is no offset due to rectifier
forward drops so this circuit will rectify signals all the way down to zero
volts. Since the DC output of A2 is not referenced to ground, op-amp
A3 and resistors R6, R7, R8, and R9 form a fully differential amplifier
which shifts the DC reference to ground.
Op-amp A4 is used as an integrator. The signal from the full-wave
rectifier is summed with a reference voltage VREF and integrated. The
time constant of the integrator is selected to limit the bandwidth of the
control loop as well as assure stability of the loop. If the bandwidth is
too wide, the control loop will follow the signal on an instantaneous
basis. The AOI alone is not very fast, but signals with frequencies of 30
– 60 Hz could be distorted if there were no time delay in the integrator.
The AGC circuit operates as follows. When there is no signal, the
negative VREF causes A4 to be at a maximum positive output.
Maximum forward current is injected into the LED, driving the cell to a
low resistance and the gain of A1 to the maximum where it stays until
there is a signal. A signal at the input terminal is amplified, rectified and
algebraically summed with VREF at the inverting terminal of the
integrator. The control loop will then act to make the absolute value of
the rectified signal equal to the reference voltage. VREF may be a fixed
value or a function of some other parameter.
Electrically Controlled Gain
The gain of an amplifier can be electrically programmed using the
circuit of Figure 10. An AOI with a center tapped photocell is used, one
side in the signal amplifier channel and the other in the control loop.
The signal amplifier consists of op-amp A1, resistors R3 and R2 which
set the gain and the input resistor R5. The gain of this amplifier is given
Figure 9. AGC Circuit with Electrical Setpoint

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