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ATMEGA16-16MC Datasheet(PDF) 39 Page - ATMEL Corporation

Part No. ATMEGA16-16MC
Description  8-bit AVR Microcontroller with 16K Bytes In-System Programmable Flash
Download  315 Pages
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Maker  ATMEL [ATMEL Corporation]
Homepage  http://www.atmel.com
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ATMEGA16-16MC Datasheet(HTML) 39 Page - ATMEL Corporation

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39
ATmega16(L)
2466E–AVR–10/02
Internal Voltage
Reference
ATmega16 features an internal bandgap reference. This reference is used for Brown-
out Detection, and it can be used as an input to the Analog Comparator or the ADC. The
2.56V reference to the ADC is generated from the internal bandgap reference.
Voltage Reference Enable
Signals and Start-up Time
The voltage reference has a start-up time that may influence the way it should be used.
The start-up time is given in Table 16. To save power, the reference is not always turned
on. The reference is on during the following situations:
1.
When the BOD is enabled (by programming the BODEN Fuse).
2.
When the bandgap reference is connected to the Analog Comparator (by setting
the ACBG bit in ACSR).
3.
When the ADC is enabled.
Thus, when the BOD is not enabled, after setting the ACBG bit or enabling the ADC, the
user must always allow the reference to start up before the output from the Analog Com-
parator or ADC is used. To reduce power consumption in Power-down mode, the user
can avoid the three conditions above to ensure that the reference is turned off before
entering Power-down mode.
Watchdog Timer
The Watchdog Timer is clocked from a separate On-chip Oscillator which runs at 1
MHz. This is the typical value at V
CC = 5V. See characterization data for typical values at
other V
CC levels. By controlling the Watchdog Timer prescaler, the Watchdog Reset
interval can be adjusted as shown in Table 17 on page 40. The WDR – Watchdog Reset
– instruction resets the Watchdog Timer. The Watchdog Timer is also reset when it is
disabled and when a Chip Reset occurs. Eight different clock cycle periods can be
selected to determine the reset period. If the reset period expires without another
Watchdog Reset, the ATmega16 resets and executes from the Reset Vector. For timing
details on the Watchdog Reset, refer to page 38.
To prevent unintentional disabling of the Watchdog, a special turn-off sequence must be
followed when the Watchdog is disabled. Refer to the description of the Watchdog Timer
Control Register for details.
Figure 21. Watchdog Timer
Table 16. Internal Voltage Reference Characteristics
Symbol
Parameter
Min
Typ
Max
Units
VBG
Bandgap reference voltage
1.15
1.23
1.35
V
tBG
Bandgap reference start-up time
40
70
µs
IBG
Bandgap reference current consumption
10
µA
WATCHDOG
OSCILLATOR


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