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ATMEGA16-16MC Datasheet(PDF) 10 Page - ATMEL Corporation

Part No. ATMEGA16-16MC
Description  8-bit AVR Microcontroller with 16K Bytes In-System Programmable Flash
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Maker  ATMEL [ATMEL Corporation]
Homepage  http://www.atmel.com
Logo ATMEL - ATMEL Corporation

ATMEGA16-16MC Datasheet(HTML) 10 Page - ATMEL Corporation

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10
ATmega16(L)
2466E–AVR–10/02
Stack Pointer
The Stack is mainly used for storing temporary data, for storing local variables and for
storing return addresses after interrupts and subroutine calls. The Stack Pointer Regis-
ter always points to the top of the stack. Note that the stack is implemented as growing
from higher memory locations to lower memory locations. This implies that a stack
PUSH command decreases the Stack Pointer.
The Stack Pointer points to the data SRAM stack area where the Subroutine and Inter-
rupt Stacks are located. This Stack space in the data SRAM must be defined by the
program before any subroutine calls are executed or interrupts are enabled. The Stack
Pointer must be set to point above $60. The Stack Pointer is decremented by one when
data is pushed onto the Stack with the PUSH instruction, and it is decremented by two
when the return address is pushed onto the Stack with subroutine call or interrupt. The
Stack Pointer is incremented by one when data is popped from the Stack with the POP
instruction, and it is incremented by two when data is popped from the Stack with return
from subroutine RET or return from interrupt RETI.
The AVR Stack Pointer is implemented as two 8-bit registers in the I/O space. The num-
ber of bits actually used is implementation dependent. Note that the data space in some
implementations of the AVR architecture is so small that only SPL is needed. In this
case, the SPH Register will not be present.
Bit
1514
1312
1110
9
8
SP15
SP14
SP13
SP12
SP11
SP10
SP9
SP8
SPH
SP7
SP6
SP5
SP4
SP3
SP2
SP1
SP0
SPL
76
543210
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
000000
00
000000


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