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ATMEGA16-16MC Datasheet(PDF) 95 Page - ATMEL Corporation

Part No. ATMEGA16-16MC
Description  8-bit AVR Microcontroller with 16K Bytes In-System Programmable Flash
Download  315 Pages
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Maker  ATMEL [ATMEL Corporation]
Homepage  http://www.atmel.com
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ATMEGA16-16MC Datasheet(HTML) 95 Page - ATMEL Corporation

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95
ATmega16(L)
2466E–AVR–10/02
Normal Mode
The simplest mode of operation is the Normal mode (WGM13:0 = 0). In this mode the
counting direction is always up (incrementing), and no counter clear is performed. The
counter simply overruns when it passes its maximum 16-bit value (MAX = 0xFFFF) and
then restarts from the BOTTOM (0x0000). In normal operation the Timer/Counter Over-
flow Flag (TOV1) will be set in the same timer clock cycle as the TCNT1 becomes zero.
The TOV1 flag in this case behaves like a 17th bit, except that it is only set, not cleared.
However, combined with the timer overflow interrupt that automatically clears the TOV1
flag, the timer resolution can be increased by software. There are no special cases to
consider in the Normal mode, a new counter value can be written anytime.
The input capture unit is easy to use in Normal mode. However, observe that the maxi-
mum interval between the external events must not exceed the resolution of the counter.
If the interval between events are too long, the timer overflow interrupt or the prescaler
must be used to extend the resolution for the capture unit.
The output compare units can be used to generate interrupts at some given time. Using
the output compare to generate waveforms in Normal mode is not recommended, since
this will occupy too much of the CPU time.
Clear Timer on Compare
Match (CTC) Mode
In Clear Timer on Compare or CTC mode (WGM13:0 = 4 or 12), the OCR1A or ICR1
Register are used to manipulate the counter resolution. In CTC mode the counter is
cleared to zero when the counter value (TCNT1) matches either the OCR1A (WGM13:0
= 4) or the ICR1 (WGM13:0 = 12). The OCR1A or ICR1 define the top value for the
counter, hence also its resolution. This mode allows greater control of the compare
match output frequency. It also simplifies the operation of counting external events.
The timing diagram for the CTC mode is shown in Figure 45. The counter value
(TCNT1) increases until a compare match occurs with either OCR1A or ICR1, and then
counter (TCNT1) is cleared.
Figure 45. CTC Mode, Timing Diagram
An interrupt can be generated at each time the counter value reaches the TOP value by
either using the OCF1A or ICF1 flag according to the register used to define the TOP
value. If the interrupt is enabled, the interrupt handler routine can be used for updating
the TOP value. However, changing the TOP to a value close to BOTTOM when the
counter is running with none or a low prescaler value must be done with care since the
CTC mode does not have the double buffering feature. If the new value written to
OCR1A or ICR1 is lower than the current value of TCNT1, the counter will miss the com-
pare match. The counter will then have to count to its maximum value (0xFFFF) and
wrap around starting at 0x0000 before the compare match can occur. In many cases
TCNTn
OCnA
(Toggle)
OCnA Interrupt Flag Set
or ICFn Interrupt Flag Set
(Interrupt on TOP)
1
4
Period
2
3
(COMnA1:0 = 1)


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