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ATMEGA16-16MC Datasheet(PDF) 91 Page - ATMEL Corporation

Part No. ATMEGA16-16MC
Description  8-bit AVR Microcontroller with 16K Bytes In-System Programmable Flash
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Maker  ATMEL [ATMEL Corporation]
Homepage  http://www.atmel.com
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ATMEGA16-16MC Datasheet(HTML) 91 Page - ATMEL Corporation

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91
ATmega16(L)
2466E–AVR–10/02
For more information on how to access the 16-bit registers refer to “Accessing 16-bit
Registers” on page 86.
Input Capture Trigger Source
The main trigger source for the input capture unit is the Input Capture pin (ICP1).
Timer/Counter1 can alternatively use the Analog Comparator output as trigger source
for the input capture unit. The Analog Comparator is selected as trigger source by set-
ting the Analog Comparator Input Capture (ACIC) bit in the Analog Comparator Control
and Status Register (ACSR). Be aware that changing trigger source can trigger a cap-
ture. The input capture flag must therefore be cleared after the change.
Both the Input Capture pin (ICP1) and the Analog Comparator output (ACO) inputs are
sampled using the same technique as for the T1 pin (Figure 38 on page 81). The edge
detector is also identical. However, when the noise canceler is enabled, additional logic
is inserted before the edge detector, which increases the delay by four system clock
cycles. Note that the input of the noise canceler and edge detector is always enabled
unless the Timer/Counter is set in a waveform generation mode that uses ICR1 to
define TOP.
An input capture can be triggered by software by controlling the port of the ICP1 pin.
Noise Canceler
The noise canceler improves noise immunity by using a simple digital filtering scheme.
The noise canceler input is monitored over four samples, and all four must be equal for
changing the output that in turn is used by the edge detector.
The noise canceler is enabled by setting the Input Capture Noise Canceler (ICNC1) bit
in Timer/Counter Control Register B (TCCR1B). When enabled the noise canceler intro-
duces additional four system clock cycles of delay from a change applied to the input, to
the update of the ICR1 Register. The noise canceler uses the system clock and is there-
fore not affected by the prescaler.
Using the Input Capture Unit
The main challenge when using the input capture unit is to assign enough processor
capacity for handling the incoming events. The time between two events is critical. If the
processor has not read the captured value in the ICR1 Register before the next event
occurs, the ICR1 will be overwritten with a new value. In this case the result of the cap-
ture will be incorrect.
When using the input capture interrupt, the ICR1 Register should be read as early in the
interrupt handler routine as possible. Even though the input capture interrupt has rela-
tively high priority, the maximum interrupt response time is dependent on the maximum
number of clock cycles it takes to handle any of the other interrupt requests.
Using the input capture unit in any mode of operation when the TOP value (resolution) is
actively changed during operation, is not recommended.
Measurement of an external signal’s duty cycle requires that the trigger edge is changed
after each capture. Changing the edge sensing must be done as early as possible after
the ICR1 Register has been read. After a change of the edge, the input capture flag
(ICF1) must be cleared by software (writing a logical one to the I/O bit location). For
measuring frequency only, the clearing of the ICF1 flag is not required (if an interrupt
handler is used).
Output Compare Units
The 16-bit comparator continuously compares TCNT1 with the Output Compare Regis-
ter (OCR1x). If TCNT equals OCR1x the comparator signals a match. A match will set
the Output Compare Flag (OCF1x) at the next timer clock cycle. If enabled (OCIE1x =
1), the Output Compare flag generates an output compare interrupt. The OCF1x flag is
automatically cleared when the interrupt is executed. Alternatively the OCF1x flag can


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