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ATMEGA16-16MC Datasheet(PDF) 89 Page - ATMEL Corporation

Part No. ATMEGA16-16MC
Description  8-bit AVR Microcontroller with 16K Bytes In-System Programmable Flash
Download  315 Pages
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Maker  ATMEL [ATMEL Corporation]
Homepage  http://www.atmel.com
Logo ATMEL - ATMEL Corporation

ATMEGA16-16MC Datasheet(HTML) 89 Page - ATMEL Corporation

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ATmega16(L)
2466E–AVR–10/02
Figure 41. Counter Unit Block Diagram
Signal description (internal signals):
Count
Increment or decrement TCNT1 by 1.
Direction
Select between increment and decrement.
Clear
Clear TCNT1 (set all bits to zero).
clk
T1
Timer/Counter clock.
TOP
Signalize that TCNT1 has reached maximum value.
BOTTOM
Signalize that TCNT1 has reached minimum value (zero).
The 16-bit counter is mapped into two 8-bit I/O memory locations: Counter High
(TCNT1H) containing the upper eight bits of the counter, and Counter Low (TCNT1L)
containing the lower 8 bits. The TCNT1H Register can only be indirectly accessed by
the CPU. When the CPU does an access to the TCNT1H I/O location, the CPU
accesses the high byte temporary register (TEMP). The temporary register is updated
with the TCNT1H value when the TCNT1L is read, and TCNT1H is updated with the
temporary register value when TCNT1L is written. This allows the CPU to read or write
the entire 16-bit counter value within one clock cycle via the 8-bit data bus. It is impor-
tant to notice that there are special cases of writing to the TCNT1 Register when the
counter is counting that will give unpredictable results. The special cases are described
in the sections where they are of importance.
Depending on the mode of operation used, the counter is cleared, incremented, or dec-
remented at each timer clock (clk
T1). The clkT1 can be generated from an external or
internal clock source, selected by the Clock Select bits (CS12:0). When no clock source
is selected (CS12:0 = 0) the timer is stopped. However, the TCNT1 value can be
accessed by the CPU, independent of whether clk
T1 is present or not. A CPU write over-
rides (has priority over) all counter clear or count operations.
The counting sequence is determined by the setting of the Waveform Generation Mode
bits (WGM13:0) located in the Timer/Counter Control Registers A and B (TCCR1A and
TCCR1B). There are close connections between how the counter behaves (counts) and
how waveforms are generated on the Output Compare outputs OC1x. For more details
about advanced counting sequences and waveform generation, see “Modes of Opera-
tion” on page 94.
The Timer/Counter Overflow (TOV1) flag is set according to the mode of operation
selected by the WGM13:0 bits. TOV1 can be used for generating a CPU interrupt.
TEMP (8-bit)
DATA BUS (8-bit)
TCNTn (16-bit Counter)
TCNTnH (8-bit)
TCNTnL (8-bit)
Control Logic
Count
Clear
Direction
TOVn
(Int.Req.)
Clock Select
TOP
BOTTOM
Tn
Edge
Detector
( From Prescaler )
clk
Tn


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