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ATMEGA16-16MC Datasheet(PDF) 74 Page - ATMEL Corporation

Part No. ATMEGA16-16MC
Description  8-bit AVR Microcontroller with 16K Bytes In-System Programmable Flash
Download  315 Pages
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Maker  ATMEL [ATMEL Corporation]
Homepage  http://www.atmel.com
Logo ATMEL - ATMEL Corporation

ATMEGA16-16MC Datasheet(HTML) 74 Page - ATMEL Corporation

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74
ATmega16(L)
2466E–AVR–10/02
pin is set as output. The PWM waveform is generated by setting (or clearing) the OC0
register at the compare match between OCR0 and TCNT0, and clearing (or setting) the
OC0 Register at the timer clock cycle the counter is cleared (changes from MAX to
BOTTOM).
The PWM frequency for the output can be calculated by the following equation:
The N variable represents the prescale factor (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024).
The extreme values for the OCR0 Register represents special cases when generating a
PWM waveform output in the fast PWM mode. If the OCR0 is set equal to BOTTOM, the
output will be a narrow spike for each MAX+1 timer clock cycle. Setting the OCR0 equal
to MAX will result in a constantly high or low output (depending on the polarity of the out-
put set by the COM01:0 bits.)
A frequency (with 50% duty cycle) waveform output in fast PWM mode can be achieved
by setting OC0 to toggle its logical level on each compare match (COM01:0 = 1). The
waveform generated will have a maximum frequency of f
OC0 = fclk_I/O/2 when OCR0 is
set to zero. This feature is similar to the OC0 toggle in CTC mode, except the double
buffer feature of the output compare unit is enabled in the fast PWM mode.
Phase Correct PWM Mode
The phase correct PWM mode (WGM01:0 = 1) provides a high resolution phase correct
PWM waveform generation option. The phase correct PWM mode is based on a dual-
slope operation. The counter counts repeatedly from BOTTOM to MAX and then from
MAX to BOTTOM. In non-inverting Compare Output mode, the Output Compare (OC0)
is cleared on the compare match between TCNT0 and OCR0 while upcounting, and set
on the compare match while downcounting. In inverting Output Compare mode, the
operation is inverted. The dual-slope operation has lower maximum operation frequency
than single slope operation. However, due to the symmetric feature of the dual-slope
PWM modes, these modes are preferred for motor control applications.
The PWM resolution for the phase correct PWM mode is fixed to eight bits. In phase
correct PWM mode the counter is incremented until the counter value matches MAX.
When the counter reaches MAX, it changes the count direction. The TCNT0 value will
be equal to MAX for one timer clock cycle. The timing diagram for the phase correct
PWM mode is shown on Figure 33. The TCNT0 value is in the timing diagram shown as
a histogram for illustrating the dual-slope operation. The diagram includes non-inverted
and inverted PWM outputs. The small horizontal line marks on the TCNT0 slopes repre-
sent compare matches between OCR0 and TCNT0.
f
OC nPW M
f
clk_I/O
N
256
------------------
=


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