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PIC16F84A Datasheet(PDF) 10 Page - Microchip Technology

Part # PIC16F84A
Description  18-pin Flash/EEPROM 8-Bit Microcontrollers
Download  124 Pages
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Manufacturer  MICROCHIP [Microchip Technology]
Direct Link  http://www.microchip.com
Logo MICROCHIP - Microchip Technology

PIC16F84A Datasheet(HTML) 10 Page - Microchip Technology

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PIC16F8X
DS30430C-page 10
© 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
3.1
Clocking Scheme/Instruction Cycle
The clock input (from OSC1) is internally divided by
four to generate four non-overlapping quadrature
clocks namely Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4. Internally, the
program counter (PC) is incremented every Q1, the
instruction is fetched from the program memory and
latched into the instruction register in Q4. The
instruction is decoded and executed during the
following Q1 through Q4. The clocks and instruction
execution flow is shown in Figure 3-2.
3.2
Instruction Flow/Pipelining
An “Instruction Cycle” consists of four Q cycles (Q1,
Q2, Q3 and Q4). The instruction fetch and execute are
pipelined such that fetch takes one instruction cycle
while decode and execute takes another instruction
cycle. However, due to the pipelining, each instruction
effectively executes in one cycle. If an instruction
causes the program counter to change (e.g., GOTO)
then two cycles are required to complete the instruction
(Example 3-1).
A fetch cycle begins with the Program Counter (PC)
incrementing in Q1.
In the execution cycle, the fetched instruction is latched
into the “Instruction Register” in cycle Q1. This
instruction is then decoded and executed during the
Q2, Q3, and Q4 cycles. Data memory is read during Q2
(operand read) and written during Q4 (destination
write).
FIGURE 3-2:
CLOCK/INSTRUCTION CYCLE
EXAMPLE 3-1:
INSTRUCTION PIPELINE FLOW
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
OSC1
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
PC
OSC2/CLKOUT
(RC mode)
PC
PC+1
PC+2
Fetch INST (PC)
Execute INST (PC-1)
Fetch INST (PC+1)
Execute INST (PC)
Fetch INST (PC+2)
Execute INST (PC+1)
Internal
phase
clock
All instructions are single cycle, except for any program branches. These take two cycles since the fetch
instruction is “flushed” from the pipeline while the new instruction is being fetched and then executed.
1. MOVLW 55h
Fetch 1
Execute 1
2. MOVWF PORTB
Fetch 2
Execute 2
3. CALL SUB_1
Fetch 3
Execute 3
4. BSF
PORTA, BIT3
Fetch 4
Flush
Fetch SUB_1 Execute SUB_1


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