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12101C474KAT2A Datasheet(PDF) 93 Page  AVX Corporation 

12101C474KAT2A Datasheet(HTML) 93 Page  AVX Corporation 
93 / 99 page 92 General Description In practice the current leads the voltage by some other phase angle due to the series resistance R S. The complement of this angle is called the loss angle and: Power Factor (P.F.) = Cos f or Sine Dissipation Factor (D.F.) = tan for small values of the tan and sine are essentially equal which has led to the common interchangeability of the two terms in the industry. Equivalent Series Resistance – The term E.S.R. or Equivalent Series Resistance combines all losses both series and parallel in a capacitor at a given frequency so that the equivalent circuit is reduced to a simple RC series connection. Dissipation Factor – The DF/PF of a capacitor tells what percent of the apparent power input will turn to heat in the capacitor. Dissipation Factor = E.S.R. = (2 π fC) (E.S.R.) X C The watts loss are: Watts loss = (2 π fCV2) (D.F.) Very low values of dissipation factor are expressed as their reciprocal for convenience. These are called the “Q” or Quality factor of capacitors. Parasitic Inductance – The parasitic inductance of capacitors is becoming more and more important in the decoupling of today’s high speed digital systems. The relationship between the inductance and the ripple voltage induced on the DC voltage line can be seen from the simple inductance equation: V = L di dt The seen in current microprocessors can be as high as 0.3 A/ns, and up to 10A/ns. At 0.3 A/ns, 100pH of parasitic inductance can cause a voltage spike of 30mV. While this does not sound very drastic, with the Vcc for microprocessors decreasing at the current rate, this can be a fairly large percentage. Another important, often overlooked, reason for knowing the parasitic inductance is the calculation of the resonant frequency. This can be important for high frequency, by pass capacitors, as the resonant point will give the most signal attenuation. The resonant frequency is calculated from the simple equation: fres = 1 2 LC Insulation Resistance – Insulation Resistance is the resistance measured across the terminals of a capacitor and consists principally of the parallel resistance RP shown in the equivalent circuit. As capacitance values and hence the area of dielectric increases, the I.R. decreases and hence the product (C x IR or RC) is often specified in ohm farads or more commonly megohmmicrofarads. Leakage current is determined by dividing the rated voltage by IR (Ohm’s Law). Dielectric Strength – Dielectric Strength is an expression of the ability of a material to withstand an electrical stress. Although dielectric strength is ordinarily expressed in volts, it is actually dependent on the thickness of the dielectric and thus is also more generically a function of volts/mil. Dielectric Absorption – A capacitor does not discharge instantaneously upon application of a short circuit, but drains gradually after the capacitance proper has been discharged. It is common practice to measure the dielectric absorption by determining the “reappearing voltage” which appears across a capacitor at some point in time after it has been fully discharged under short circuit conditions. Corona – Corona is the ionization of air or other vapors which causes them to conduct current. It is especially prevalent in high voltage units but can occur with low voltages as well where high voltage gradients occur. The energy discharged degrades the performance of the capacitor and can in time cause catastrophic failures. di dt I (Ideal) I (Actual) Phase Angle Loss Angle V IR s f E.S.R. C 
Similar Part No.  12101C474KAT2A 

Similar Description  12101C474KAT2A 


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