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12101C474KAT2A Datasheet(PDF) 92 Page  AVX Corporation 

12101C474KAT2A Datasheet(HTML) 92 Page  AVX Corporation 
92 / 99 page 91 Effects of Mechanical Stress – High “K” dielectric ceramic capacitors exhibit some low level piezoelectric reactions under mechanical stress. As a general statement, the piezo electric output is higher, the higher the dielectric constant of the ceramic. It is desirable to investigate this effect before using high “K” dielectrics as coupling capacitors in extremely low level applications. Reliability – Historically ceramic capacitors have been one of the most reliable types of capacitors in use today. The approximate formula for the reliability of a ceramic capacitor is: L o = V t X T t Y L t V o T o where Lo = operating life Tt = test temperature and Lt = test life To = operating temperature Vt = test voltage in °C Vo = operating voltage X,Y = see text Historically for ceramic capacitors exponent X has been considered as 3. The exponent Y for temperature effects typically tends to run about 8. A capacitor is a component which is capable of storing electrical energy. It consists of two conductive plates (elec trodes) separated by insulating material which is called the dielectric. A typical formula for determining capacitance is: C = .224 KA t C = capacitance (picofarads) K = dielectric constant (Vacuum = 1) A = area in square inches t = separation between the plates in inches (thickness of dielectric) .224 = conversion constant (.0884 for metric system in cm) Capacitance – The standard unit of capacitance is the farad. A capacitor has a capacitance of 1 farad when 1 coulomb charges it to 1 volt. One farad is a very large unit and most capacitors have values in the micro (106), nano (109) or pico (1012) farad level. Dielectric Constant – In the formula for capacitance given above the dielectric constant of a vacuum is arbitrarily chosen as the number 1. Dielectric constants of other materials are then compared to the dielectric constant of a vacuum. Dielectric Thickness – Capacitance is indirectly proportional to the separation between electrodes. Lower voltage require ments mean thinner dielectrics and greater capacitance per volume. Area – Capacitance is directly proportional to the area of the electrodes. Since the other variables in the equation are usually set by the performance desired, area is the easiest parameter to modify to obtain a specific capacitance within a material group. Energy Stored – The energy which can be stored in a capacitor is given by the formula: E = 1⁄2CV2 E = energy in joules (wattssec) V = applied voltage C = capacitance in farads Potential Change – A capacitor is a reactive component which reacts against a change in potential across it. This is shown by the equation for the linear charge of a capacitor: I ideal = C dV dt where I = Current C = Capacitance dV/dt = Slope of voltage transition across capacitor Thus an infinite current would be required to instantly change the potential across a capacitor. The amount of current a capacitor can “sink” is determined by the above equation. Equivalent Circuit – A capacitor, as a practical device, exhibits not only capacitance but also resistance and inductance. A simplified schematic for the equivalent circuit is: C = Capacitance L = Inductance Rs = Series Resistance Rp = Parallel Resistance Reactance – Since the insulation resistance (Rp) is nor mally very high, the total impedance of a capacitor is: Z = R2 S + (XC  XL ) 2 where Z = Total Impedance R s = Series Resistance X C = Capacitive Reactance = 1 2 π fC X L = Inductive Reactance = 2 π fL The variation of a capacitor’s impedance with frequency determines its effectiveness in many applications. Phase Angle – Power Factor and Dissipation Factor are often confused since they are both measures of the loss in a capacitor under AC application and are often almost identical in value. In a “perfect” capacitor the current in the capacitor will lead the voltage by 90°. General Description R L R C P S 
Similar Part No.  12101C474KAT2A 

Similar Description  12101C474KAT2A 


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