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MIC24420 Datasheet(PDF) 21 Page - Micrel Semiconductor

Part No. MIC24420
Description  2.5A Dual Output PWM Synchronous Buck Regulator IC
Download  34 Pages
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Maker  MICREL [Micrel Semiconductor]
Homepage  http://www.micrel.com
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MIC24420 Datasheet(HTML) 21 Page - Micrel Semiconductor

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Micrel, Inc.
MIC24420/MIC24421
June 2012
21
M9999-062012-C
The modulator, filter and voltage divider gains can be
multiplied together to show the open loop gain of these
parts.
Gmod
H
Gfilter(s)
Gvd(s)
=
This transfer function is plotted in Figure 13. At low
frequency, the transfer function gain equals the
modulator gain times the voltage divider gain. As the
frequency increases toward the LC filter resonant
frequency, the gain starts to peak. The increase in the
gain’s amplitude equals Q. Just above the resonant
frequency, the gain drops at a -40db/decade rate. The
phase quickly drops from 0° to almost 180° before the
phase boost of the zero brings it back up to -90°. Higher
values of Q will cause the phase to drop quickly. In a
well damped, low Q system the phase will change more
slowly.
As the Gain/Phase plot approaches the zero frequency
(fZ), formed by CO and its ESR, the slope of the gain
curve changes from -40db/dec. to -20db/dec and the
phase increases. The zero causes a 90° phase boost.
Ceramic capacitors, with their smaller values of
capacitance and ESR, push the zero and its phase boost
out to higher frequencies, which allow the phase lag
from the LC filter to drop closer to -180°. The system will
be close to being unstable if the overall open loop gain
crosses 0dB while the phase is close to -180°.
Figure 13: Gvd Transfer Function
If the output capacitance and/or ESR is high, the zero
moves lower in frequency and helps to boost the phase,
leading to a more stable system.
Error Amplifier Poles and Zeros
The error amplifier has internal poles and zeros that can
be shifted in frequency with an external capacitor. The
general form of the error amplifier compensation is
shown in the equation below:
⎟⎟
⎜⎜
+
⎟⎟
⎜⎜
+
⎛ +
⎛ +
×
=
ωp2
s
1
ωp1
s
1
ωz2
s
1
ωz1
s
1
G
Gea(s)
DC
The GDC is the DC gain of the error amplifier. It is
internally set to 2500 (68dB).
As illustrated in Figure 12, there are two compensating
zeros. ωz1 is internally set with R3 and C3. The zero
frequency is fixed at a nominal 16kHz in the
MIC24420/MIC24421. The second zero, ωz2, is set by
the external capacitor, C2.
For the MIC24420:
C2
10
21
π
2
1
fz2
16kHz
C3
R3
π
2
1
fz1
100pf
C3
100k
R3
3 ×
×
×
=
=
×
×
×
=
=
=
The two compensating pole frequencies are shown
below.
C2
10
12
π
2
1
fp2
250Hz
fp1
3 ×
×
×
=
=
Gv d Transfer Function
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
10
100
1000
10000 100000 1000000
FREQ UENCY (Hz)
-210
-180
-150
-120
-90
-60
-30
0
30
60
90
Gain
Phase
VIN = 12V
VOUT = 1.8V
COUT = 20µF
L = 4.7µH
fp2 and fz2 both depend on the value of C2 and are
proportionally spaced in frequency with the zero at a
lower frequency than the pole. This provides gain and
phase boost in the control loop.
Voltage Divider Feedforward Capacitor
The capacitor across the upper voltage divider resistor
boosts the gain and phase of the control loop by short
circuiting the high-side resistor at higher frequencies.
The capacitor and upper resistor form a zero at a lower
frequency. The capacitor and parallel combination of
upper and lower resistors form a pole at a higher
frequency. This phase boost circuit is most effective at
higher output voltages, where there is a larger
attenuation from the voltage divider resistors.


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