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IDT70V28L Datasheet(PDF) 16 Page - Integrated Device Technology

Part No. IDT70V28L
Description  HIGH-SPEED 3.3V 64K x 16 DUAL-PORT STATIC RAM High-speed access
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Maker  IDT [Integrated Device Technology]
Homepage  http://www.idt.com
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IDT70V28L Datasheet(HTML) 16 Page - Integrated Device Technology

 
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IDT70V28L
High-Speed 3.3V 64K x 16 Dual-Port Static RAM
Industrial and Commercial Temperature Ranges
16
D
4849 drw 18
0
D
Q
WRITE
D0
D
Q
WRITE
SEMAPHORE
REQUEST FLIP FLOP
SEMAPHORE
REQUEST FLIP FLOP
LPORT
RPORT
SEMAPHORE
READ
SEMAPHORE
READ
verifies its success in setting the latch by reading it. If it was successful, it
proceeds to assume control over the shared resource. If it was not
successful in setting the latch, it determines that the right side
processor has set the latch first, has the token and is using the shared
resource. The left processor can then either repeatedly request that
semaphore’s status or remove its request for that semaphore to
perform another task and occasionally attempt again to gain control of
the token via the set and test sequence. Once the right side has
relinquished the token, the left side should succeed in gaining control.
The semaphore flags are active LOW. A token is requested by
writing a zero into a semaphore latch and is released when the same
side writes a one to that latch.
The eight semaphore flags reside within the IDT70V28 in a
separate memory space from the Dual-Port RAM. This address space
is accessed by placing a low input on the
SEM pin (which acts as a chip
select for the semaphore flags) and using the other control pins
(Address,
CE, and R/W) as they would be used in accessing a
standard Static RAM. Each of the flags has a unique address which
can be accessed by either side through address pins A0 – A2. When
accessing the semaphores, none of the other address pins has any
effect.
When writing to a semaphore, only data pin D0 is used. If a low level
is written into an unused semaphore location, that flag will be set to a
zero on that side and a one on the other side (see Truth Table VI). That
semaphore can now only be modified by the side showing the zero.
When a one is written into the same location from the same side, the
flag will be set to a one for both sides (unless a semaphore request
from the other side is pending) and then can be written to by both sides.
The fact that the side which is able to write a zero into a semaphore
subsequently locks out writes from the other side is what makes
semaphore flags useful in interprocessor communications. (A thor-
ough discussion on the use of this feature follows shortly.) A zero
written into the same location from the other side will be stored in the
semaphore request latch for that side until the semaphore is freed by
the first side.
When a semaphore flag is read, its value is spread into all data bits
so that a flag that is a one reads as a one in all data bits and a flag
containing a zero reads as all zeros. The read value is latched into one
side’s output register when that side's semaphore select (
SEM) and
output enable (
OE) signals go active. This serves to disallow the
semaphore from changing state in the middle of a read cycle due to a
write cycle from the other side. Because of this latch, a repeated read
of a semaphore in a test loop must cause either signal (
SEM or OE) to
go inactive or the output will never change.
A sequence WRITE/READ must be used by the semaphore in
order to guarantee that no system level contention will occur. A
processor requests access to shared resources by attempting to write
a zero into a semaphore location. If the semaphore is already in use,
the semaphore request latch will contain a zero, yet the semaphore
flag will appear as one, a fact which the processor will verify by the
subsequent read (see Table VI). As an example, assume a processor
writes a zero to the left port at a free semaphore location. On a
subsequent read, the processor will verify that it has written success-
fully to that location and will assume control over the resource in
question. Meanwhile, if a processor on the right side attempts to write
a zero to the same semaphore flag it will fail, as will be verified by the
fact that a one will be read from that semaphore on the right side during
subsequent read. Had a sequence of READ/WRITE been used
instead, system contention problems could have occurred during the
gap between the read and write cycles.
It is important to note that a failed semaphore request must be
followed by either repeated reads or by writing a one into the same
location. The reason for this is easily understood by looking at the
simple logic diagram of the semaphore flag in Figure 4. Two sema-
phore request latches feed into a semaphore flag. Whichever latch is
first to present a zero to the semaphore flag will force its side of the
semaphore flag LOW and the other side HIGH. This condition will
continue until a one is written to the same semaphore request latch.
Should the other side’s semaphore request latch have been written to
a zero in the meantime, the semaphore flag will flip over to the other side
as soon as a one is written into the first side’s request latch. The second
side’sflagwillnowstay LOWuntilitssemaphorerequestlatchiswrittento
a one. From this it is easy to understand that, if a semaphore is requested
and the processor which requested it no longer needs the resource, the
entiresystemcanhangupuntilaoneiswrittenintothatsemaphorerequest
latch.
The critical case of semaphore timing is when both sides request
a single token by attempting to write a zero into it at the same time. The
semaphore logic is specially designed to resolve this problem. If
simultaneous requests are made, the logic guarantees that only one
side receives the token. If one side is earlier than the other in making
the request, the first side to make the request will receive the token. If
both requests arrive at the same time, the assignment will be arbitrarily
made to one port or the other.
One caution that should be noted when using semaphores is that
semaphores alone do not guarantee that access to a resource is
secure. As with any powerful programming technique, if semaphores
are misused or misinterpreted, a software error can easily happen.
Initialization of the semaphores is not automatic and must be
handled via the initialization program at power-up. Since any sema-
phore request flag which contains a zero must be reset to a one,
all semaphores on both sides should have a one written into them
at initialization from both sides to assure that they will be free
when needed.
Figure 4. IDT70V28 Semaphore Logic


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