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LM2731XMF_NOPB Datasheet(PDF) 12 Page - Texas Instruments
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LM2731XMF_NOPB Datasheet(HTML) 12 Page - Texas Instruments
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Duty Cycle =
TI Confidential - NDA Restrictions
SNVS217F – MAY 2004 – REVISED NOVEMBER 2012
The LM2731 is provided with two switching frequencies: the “X” version is typically 1.6 MHz, while the “Y” version
is typically 600 kHz. The best frequency for a specific application must be determined based on the trade-offs
Higher switching frequency means the inductors and capacitors can be made smaller and cheaper for a given
output voltage and current. The down side is that efficiency is slightly lower because the fixed switching losses
occur more frequently and become a larger percentage of total power loss. EMI is typically worse at higher
switching frequencies because more EMI energy will be seen in the higher frequency spectrum where most
circuits are more sensitive to such interference.
Figure 29. Basic Application Circuit
The maximum duty cycle of the switching regulator determines the maximum boost ratio of output-to-input
voltage that the converter can attain in continuous mode of operation. The duty cycle for a given boost
application is defined as:
This applies for continuous mode operation.
The first question we are usually asked is: “How small can I make the inductor?” (because they are the largest
sized component and usually the most costly). The answer is not simple and involves trade-offs in performance.
Larger inductors mean less inductor ripple current, which typically means less output voltage ripple (for a given
size of output capacitor). Larger inductors also mean more load power can be delivered because the energy
stored during each switching cycle is:
E = L/2 X (lp)
Where “lp” is the peak inductor current. An important point to observe is that the LM2731 will limit its switch
current based on peak current. This means that since lp(max) is fixed, increasing L will increase the maximum
amount of power available to the load. Conversely, using too little inductance may limit the amount of load
current which can be drawn from the output.
Best performance is usually obtained when the converter is operated in “continuous” mode at the load current
range of interest, typically giving better load regulation and less output ripple. Continuous operation is defined as
not allowing the inductor current to drop to zero during the cycle. It should be noted that all boost converters shift
over to discontinuous operation as the output load is reduced far enough, but a larger inductor stays “continuous”
over a wider load current range.
To better understand these trade-offs, a typical application circuit (5V to 12V boost with a 10 µH inductor) will be
analyzed. We will assume:
= 5V, V
= 12V, V
= 0.5V, V
Since the frequency is 1.6 MHz (nominal), the period is approximately 0.625 µs. The duty cycle will be 62.5%,
which means the ON time of the switch is 0.390 µs. It should be noted that when the switch is ON, the voltage
across the inductor is approximately 4.5V.
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