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AD8553 Datasheet(PDF) 19 Page - Analog Devices

Part No. AD8553
Description  Wide Supply Range, Micropower,
Download  28 Pages
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Maker  AD [Analog Devices]
Homepage  http://www.analog.com
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AD8553 Datasheet(HTML) 19 Page - Analog Devices

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Data Sheet
AD8420
Rev. 0 | Page 19 of 28
THEORY OF OPERATION
+IN
–IN
gm1
I2
I1
I3
+VS
–VS
+VS
–VS
+VS
–VS
R2
R1
VOUT
FB
REF
AD8420
gm2
ESD
PROTECTION
A
Vb
ESD
PROTECTION
Figure 58. Simplified Schematic
ARCHITECTURE
The AD8420 is based on an indirect current feedback topology
consisting of three amplifiers: two matched transconductance
amplifiers that convert voltage to current and one integrator
amplifier that converts current to voltage.
For the AD8420, assume that all initial voltages and currents are
zero until a positive differential voltage is applied between the
inputs, +IN and −IN. Transconductance Amplifier gm1 converts this
input voltage into a current, I1. Because the voltage across gm2 is
initially zero, I2 is zero and I3 equals I1.
I3 is integrated to the output, making the output voltage, VOUT,
increase. This voltage continues to increase until the same differ-
ential input voltage across the inputs of gm1 is replicated across
the inputs of gm2, generating a current (I2) equal to I1. This reduces
the Difference Current I3 to zero so that the output remains at a
stable voltage. The gain in the configuration shown in Figure 58 is
set by R2 and R1.
In traditional instrumentation amplifiers, the input common-
mode voltage can limit the available output swing, typically
depicted in a hexagon plot. Because the AD8420 converts the
input differential signals to current, this limit does not apply. This
is particularly important when amplifying a signal with a common-
mode voltage near one of the supply rails.
To improve robustness and ease of use, the AD8420 includes
overvoltage protection on its inputs. This protection scheme
allows wide differential input voltages without damaging the part.
SETTING THE GAIN
The transfer function of the AD8420 is
VOUT = G(V+IN − V−IN) + VREF
where:
R1
R2
G
+
=1
Table 7. Suggested Resistors for Various Gains, 1% Resistors
R1 (kΩ)
R2 (kΩ)
Gain
None
Short
1.00
49.9
49.9
2.00
20
80.6
5.03
10
90.9
10.09
5
95.3
20.06
2
97.6
49.8
1
100
101
1
200
201
1
499
500
1
1000
1001
While the ratio of R2 to R1 sets the gain, the designer determines
the absolute value of the resistors. Larger values reduce power
consumption and output loading; smaller values limit the FB input
bias current and offset current error. For best output swing and
distortion performance, keep (R1 + R2) || RL ≥ 20 kΩ.
A method that allows large value feedback resistors while limiting
FB bias current error is to place a resistor of value R1 || R2 in
series with the REF terminal, as shown in Figure 59. At higher
gains, this resistor can simply be the same value as R1.
AD8420
+IN
–IN
REF
FB
VOUT
G = 1 +
R2
R1
IB+
IB
VREF
R1
R2
R1
||R2
+
IBR
IBF
Figure 59. Cancelling Out Error from FB Input Bias Current


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