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PIC18LF26J53 Datasheet(PDF) 87 Page - Microchip Technology

Part No. PIC18LF26J53
Description  28/44-Pin, High-Performance USB Microcontrollers with nanoWatt XLP Technology
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Maker  MICROCHIP [Microchip Technology]
Homepage  http://www.microchip.com
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PIC18LF26J53 Datasheet(HTML) 87 Page - Microchip Technology

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 2010 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39964B-page 87
PIC18F47J53 FAMILY
6.2.3
INSTRUCTIONS IN PROGRAM
MEMORY
The program memory is addressed in bytes. Instruc-
tions are stored as 2 bytes or 4 bytes in program
memory. The Least Significant Byte (LSB) of an
instruction word is always stored in a program memory
location with an even address (LSB = 0). To maintain
alignment with instruction boundaries, the PC
increments in steps of 2 and the LSB will always read
‘0’ (see Section 6.1.3 “Program Counter”).
Figure 6-5 provides an example of how instruction
words are stored in the program memory.
The CALL and GOTO instructions have the absolute
program memory address embedded into the instruc-
tion. Since instructions are always stored on word
boundaries, the data contained in the instruction is a
word address. The word address is written to PC<20:1>,
which accesses the desired byte address in program
memory. Instruction #2 in Figure 6-5 displays how the
instruction, GOTO 0006h, is encoded in the program
memory. Program branch instructions, which encode a
relative address offset, operate in the same manner. The
offset value stored in a branch instruction represents the
number of single-word instructions that the PC will be
offset by. Section 29.0 “Instruction Set Summary”
provides further details of the instruction set.
FIGURE 6-5:
INSTRUCTIONS IN PROGRAM MEMORY
6.2.4
TWO-WORD INSTRUCTIONS
The standard PIC18 instruction set has four two-word
instructions: CALL, MOVFF, GOTO and LSFR. In all
cases, the second word of the instructions always has
‘1111’ as its four Most Significant bits (MSbs); the other
12 bits are literal data, usually a data memory address.
The use of ‘1111’ in the 4 MSbs of an instruction
specifies a special form of NOP. If the instruction is
executed in proper sequence immediately after the first
word, the data in the second word is accessed and
used by the instruction sequence. If the first word is
skipped for some reason and the second word is
executed by itself, a NOP is executed instead. This is
necessary for cases when the two-word instruction is
preceded by a conditional instruction that changes the
PC. Example 6-4 illustrates how this works.
EXAMPLE 6-4:
TWO-WORD INSTRUCTIONS
Word Address
LSB = 1
LSB = 0
Program Memory
Byte Locations
000000h
000002h
000004h
000006h
Instruction 1:
MOVLW
055h
0Fh
55h
000008h
Instruction 2:
GOTO
0006h
EFh
03h
00000Ah
F0h
00h
00000Ch
Instruction 3:
MOVFF
123h, 456h
C1h
23h
00000Eh
F4h
56h
000010h
000012h
000014h
Note:
See Section 6.5 “Program Memory and
the Extended Instruction Set” for infor-
mation on two-word instructions in the
extended instruction set.
CASE 1:
Object Code
Source Code
0110 0110 0000 0000
TSTFSZ
REG1
; is RAM location 0?
1100 0001 0010 0011
MOVFF
REG1, REG2
; No, skip this word
1111 0100 0101 0110
; Execute this word as a NOP
0010 0100 0000 0000
ADDWF
REG3
; continue code
CASE 2:
Object Code
Source Code
0110 0110 0000 0000
TSTFSZ
REG1
; is RAM location 0?
1100 0001 0010 0011
MOVFF
REG1, REG2
; Yes, execute this word
1111 0100 0101 0110
; 2nd word of instruction
0010 0100 0000 0000
ADDWF
REG3
; continue code


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