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AN1262 Datasheet(PDF) 3 Page - STMicroelectronics
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AN1262 APPLICATION NOTE
CONVERTER ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATION
The starting point of the design procedure is the properties of the converter as a black-box, that is the set of data
listed in the electrical specification table (table 1). Additional requirements, such as efficiency at zero load or
line/load regulation or maximum junction temperature, etc., can be added to that list and their impact will be con-
sidered where appropriate.
Mains Voltage: Range and Frequency.
There are basically the three possible options listed in table 2,
where a variation of ± 20% is assumed, according to common practice. There are exceptions like some
distribution lines rated at 277 V
, where a ± 10% spread can be considered, or other special cases for
specific applications. Table 2 shows also the line frequency to be considered in the standard cases at
the minimum specified mains voltages. An additional specification may require the converter to be shut
down if the mains voltage falls below a "brownout level". This additional specification will be used for
setting up the brownout protection on the types where it is available.
Table 2. Mains voltage specifications
Number of holdup cycles.
The holdup requirement is the ability of the converter to keep the output volt-
age in regulation even in case of mains interruption (missing cycles). This is usually specified in terms
of number of mains cycles N
. This feature is not always demanded (in which case, N
= 0), otherwise
the typical requirement is 1 mains cycle, that is N
= 1. It impacts on the input bulk capacitor selection.
Output voltage tolerance.
It can be expressed either in absolute value or as a percentage of the nominal
voltage. This requirement, as well as the ones on line and load regulation, if specified, will affect the
choice of the feedback technique (primary or secondary).
Output voltage ripple.
The ripple superimposed on top of the DC output voltage is specified as the peak-
to-peak amplitude and includes both low frequency (at 2·f
) and high frequency (f
Switching noise due to parasitics of the printed circuit board and random noise are beyond the scope
of this procedure. This requirement, if tight, may require the use of an additional filtering cell at the out-
The efficiency is, by definition, the ratio of the output power to the input power.
This figure is strongly dependent on the output voltage, because of the losses on the secondary diode.
It should be set based on experience, using numbers of similar converters as a reference. As a rule of
thumb, 75% (
η = 0.75) can be used for a low voltage output (3.3 V or 5 V) and 80% (η = 0.8) for higher
output voltages (12 V and above).
Before starting the design calculations of the various parts of the converter, some parameters not defined at the
"black-box level" need to be fixed. There is some degree of freedom in the selection of these parameters, pro-
vided some constraints are taken into account.
In principle, the reflected voltage should be as high as possible. In fact this leads to
a greater duty cycle, which minimizes the RMS current through the IC's MOSFET for a given power
throughput. There are two possible limitations to the maximum reflected voltage. One is the maximum
duty cycle D
allowed by the devices (67% min.); some margin should be considered for load tran-
sients, thus the reflected voltage should be such that the maximum duty cycle (at minimum input voltage
WRM (Wide Range Mains)
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