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TPA3118D2 Datasheet(PDF) 21 Page - Texas Instruments

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Part # TPA3118D2
Description  15-W, 30-W, 50-W Filter-Free Class-D Stereo Amplifier Family With AM Avoidance
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Manufacturer  TI [Texas Instruments]
Direct Link  http://www.ti.com
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TPA3118D2 Datasheet(HTML) 21 Page - Texas Instruments

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TPA3116D2, TPA3118D2, TPA3130D2
www.ti.com
SLOS708G – APRIL 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2017
Product Folder Links: TPA3116D2 TPA3118D2 TPA3130D2
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Copyright © 2012–2017, Texas Instruments Incorporated
7.3.13 Efficiency: LC Filter Required with the Traditional Class-D Modulation Scheme
The main reason that the traditional class-D amplifier-based on AD modulation needs an output filter is that the
switching waveform results in maximum current flow. This causes more loss in the load, which causes lower
efficiency. The ripple current is large for the traditional modulation scheme, because the ripple current is
proportional to voltage multiplied by the time at that voltage. The differential voltage swing is 2 × VCC, and the
time at each voltage is half the period for the traditional modulation scheme. An ideal LC filter is needed to store
the ripple current from each half cycle for the next half cycle, while any resistance causes power dissipation. The
speaker is both resistive and reactive, whereas an LC filter is almost purely reactive.
The TPA3116D2 modulation scheme has little loss in the load without a filter because the pulses are short and
the change in voltage is VCC instead of 2 × VCC. As the output power increases, the pulses widen, making the
ripple current larger. Ripple current could be filtered with an LC filter for increased efficiency, but for most
applications the filter is not needed.
An LC filter with a cutoff frequency less than the class-D switching frequency allows the switching current to flow
through the filter instead of the load. The filter has less resistance but higher impedance at the switching
frequency than the speaker, which results in less power dissipation, therefore increasing efficiency.
7.3.14 Ferrite Bead Filter Considerations
Using the Advanced Emissions Suppression Technology in the TPA3116D2 amplifier it is possible to design a
high efficiency class-D audio amplifier while minimizing interference to surrounding circuits. It is also possible to
accomplish this with only a low-cost ferrite bead filter. In this case it is necessary to carefully select the ferrite
bead used in the filter. One important aspect of the ferrite bead selection is the type of material used in the ferrite
bead. Not all ferrite material is alike, so it is important to select a material that is effective in the 10 to 100 MHz
range which is key to the operation of the class-D amplifier. Many of the specifications regulating consumer
electronics have emissions limits as low as 30 MHz. It is important to use the ferrite bead filter to block radiation
in the 30 MHz and above range from appearing on the speaker wires and the power supply lines which are good
antennas for these signals. The impedance of the ferrite bead can be used along with a small capacitor with a
value in the range of 1000 pF to reduce the frequency spectrum of the signal to an acceptable level. For best
performance, the resonant frequency of the ferrite bead/ capacitor filter should be less than 10 MHz.
Also, it is important that the ferrite bead is large enough to maintain its impedance at the peak currents expected
for the amplifier. Some ferrite bead manufacturers specify the bead impedance at a variety of current levels. In
this case it is possible to make sure the ferrite bead maintains an adequate amount of impedance at the peak
current the amplifier will see. If these specifications are not available, it is also possible to estimate the bead
current handling capability by measuring the resonant frequency of the filter output at low power and at maximum
power. A change of resonant frequency of less than fifty percent under this condition is desirable. Examples of
ferrite beads which have been tested and work well with the TPA3130D2 can be seen in the TPA3130D2EVM
user guide SLOU341.
A high quality ceramic capacitor is also needed for the ferrite bead filter. A low ESR capacitor with good
temperature and voltage characteristics will work best.
Additional EMC improvements may be obtained by adding snubber networks from each of the class-D outputs to
ground. Suggested values for a simple RC series snubber network would be 18 Ω in series with a 330 pF
capacitor although design of the snubber network is specific to every application and must be designed taking
into account the parasitic reactance of the printed circuit board as well as the audio amp. Take care to evaluate
the stress on the component in the snubber network especially if the amp is running at high PVCC. Also, make
sure the layout of the snubber network is tight and returns directly to the GND pins on the IC.


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