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LMX2332LTMX Datasheet(PDF) 19 Page  National Semiconductor (TI) 


LMX2332LTMX Datasheet(HTML) 19 Page  National Semiconductor (TI) 
19 / 23 page Application Information A block diagram of the basic phase locked loop is shown in Figure 1. LOOP GAIN EQUATIONS A linear control system model of the phase feedback for a PLL in the locked state is shown in Figure 2. The open loop gain is the product of the phase comparator gain (K φ), the VCO gain (K VCO/s), and the loop filter gain Z(s) divided by the gain of the feedback counter modulus (N). The passive loop filter configuration used is displayed in Figure 3, while the complex impedance of the filter is given in Equation (1). (1) The time constants which determine the pole and zero fre quencies of the filter transfer function can be defined as (2) and T2=R2 • C2 (3) The 3rd order PLL Open Loop Gain can be calculated in terms of frequency, ω, the filter time constants T1 and T2, and the design constants Kφ,KVCO, and N. (4) From Equations (2), (3) we can see that the phase term will be dependent on the single pole and zero such that the phase margin is determined in Equation (5). φ(ω) = tan −1 (ω • T2) − tan−1 (ω • T1) + 180˚ (5) A plot of the magnitude and phase of G(s)H(s) for a stable loop, is shown in Figure 4 with a solid trace. The parameter φ p shows the amount of phase margin that exists at the point the gain drops below zero (the cutoff frequency wp of the loop). In a critically damped system, the amount of phase margin would be approximately 45 degrees. If we were now to redefine the cut off frequency, wp’, as double the frequency which gave us our original loop band width, wp, the loop response time would be approximately halved. Because the filter attenuation at the comparison frequency also diminishes, the spurs would have increased by approximately 6 dB. In the proposed Fastlock scheme, the higher spur levels and wider loop filter conditions would exist only during the initial lockon phase — just long enough to reap the benefits of locking faster. The objective would be to open up the loop bandwidth but not introduce any addi tional complications or compromises related to our original design criteria. We would ideally like to momentarily shift the curve of Figure 4 over to a different cutoff frequency, illus trated by the dotted line, without affecting the relative open loop gain and phase relationships. To maintain the same gain/phase relationship at twice the original cutoff frequency, other terms in the gain and phase Equation (4) and Equation (5) will have to compensate by the corresponding “1/w” or “1/w 2” factor. Examination of equations Equations (2), (3) and Equation (5) indicates the damping resistor variable R2 could be chosen to compensate the “w”’ terms for the phase 01280614 FIGURE 1. Basic Charge Pump Phase Locked Loop 01280615 FIGURE 2. PLL Linear Model 01280616 FIGURE 3. Passive Loop Filter www.national.com 19 
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