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ISL6552 Datasheet(PDF) 9 Page - Renesas Technology Corp

Part No. ISL6552
Description  Microprocessor CORE Voltage Regulator Multi-Phase Buck PWM Controller
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Manufacturer  RENESAS [Renesas Technology Corp]
Direct Link  http://www.renesas.com
Logo RENESAS - Renesas Technology Corp

ISL6552 Datasheet(HTML) 9 Page - Renesas Technology Corp

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ISL6552
FN4918 Rev 2.00
Page 9 of 18
July 2004
output pulse width of the comparator to compensate for the
detected “above average” current in that channel.
Droop Compensation
In addition to control of each power channel’s output current,
the average channel current is also used to provide CORE
voltage “droop” compensation. Average full channel current is
defined as 50
A. By selecting an input resistor, RIN, the
amount of voltage droop required at full load current can be
programmed. The average current driven into the FB pin
results in a voltage increase across resistor RIN that is in the
direction to make the error amplifier “see” a higher voltage at
the inverting input, resulting in the error amplifier adjusting the
output voltage lower. The voltage developed across RIN is
equal to the “droop” voltage. See the “Current Sensing and
Balancing” section for more details.
Applications and Converter Start-Up
Each PWM power channel’s current is regulated. This enables
the PWM channels to accurately share the load current for
enhanced reliability. The HIP6601, HIP6602 or HIP6603
MOSFET driver interfaces with the ISL6552. For more
information, see the HIP6601, HIP6602 or HIP6603 data
sheets [1][2].
The ISL6552 is capable of controlling up to 4 PWM power
channels. Connecting unused PWM outputs to VCC
automatically sets the number of channels. The phase
relationship between the channels is 360o/number of active
PWM channels. For example, for three channel operation, the
PWM outputs are separated by 120o. Figure 2 shows the
PWM output signals for a four channel system.
Power supply ripple frequency is determined by the channel
frequency, FSW, multiplied by the number of active channels.
For example, if the channel frequency is set to 250kHz and
there are three phases, the ripple frequency is 750kHz.
The IC monitors and precisely regulates the CORE voltage of a
microprocessor. After initial start-up, the controller also
provides protection for the load and the power supply. The
following section discusses these features.
Initialization
The ISL6552 usually operates from an ATX power supply.
Many functions are initiated by the rising supply voltage to the
VCC pin of the ISL6552. Oscillator, sawtooth generator, soft-
start and other functions are initialized during this interval.
These circuits are controlled by POR, Power-On Reset. During
this interval, the PWM outputs are driven to a three state
condition that makes these outputs essentially open. This state
results in no gate drive to the output MOSFETs.
Once the VCC voltage reaches 4.375V (+125mV), a voltage
level to insure proper internal function, the PWM outputs are
enabled and the Soft-Start sequence is initiated. If for any
reason, the VCC voltage drops below 3.875V (+125mV). The
POR circuit shuts the converter down and again three states
the PWM outputs.
Soft-Start
After the POR function is completed with VCC reaching
4.375V, the Soft-Start sequence is initiated. Soft-Start, by its
slow rise in CORE voltage from zero, avoids an over-current
condition by slowly charging the discharged output capacitors.
This voltage rise is initiated by an internal DAC that slowly
raises the reference voltage to the error amplifier input. The
voltage rise is controlled by the oscillator frequency and the
DAC within the ISL6552, therefore, the output voltage is
effectively regulated as it rises to the final programmed CORE
voltage value.
For the first 32 PWM switching cycles, the DAC output remains
inhibited and the PWM outputs remain three stated. From the
33rd cycle and for another, approximately 150 cycles the PWM
output remains low, clamping the lower output MOSFETs to
ground, see Figure 3. The time variability is due to the error
amplifier, sawtooth generator and comparators moving into
their active regions. After this short interval, the PWM outputs
are enabled and increment the PWM pulse width from zero
duty cycle to operational pulse width, thus allowing the output
voltage to slowly reach the CORE voltage. The CORE voltage
will reach its programmed value before the 2048 cycles, but
the PGOOD output will not be initiated until the 2048th PWM
switching cycle.
The Soft-Start time or delay time, DT = 2048/FSW. For an
oscillator frequency, FSW, of 200kHz, the first 32 cycles or
160
s, the PWM outputs are held in a three state level as
explained above. After this period and a short interval
described above, the PWM outputs are initiated and the
voltage rises in 10.08ms, for a total delay time DT of 10.24ms.
Figure 3 shows the start-up sequence as initiated by a fast
rising 5V supply, VCC, applied to the ISL6552. Note the short
PWM 1
PWM 2
PWM 3
PWM 4
FIGURE 2. FOUR PHASE PWM OUTPUT AT 500kHz


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