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AD725 Datasheet(PDF) 8 Page - Analog Devices

Part No. AD725
Description  Low Cost RGB to NTSC/PAL Encoder with Luma Trap Port
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Maker  AD [Analog Devices]
Homepage  http://www.analog.com
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REV. 0
–8–
AD725
Following the dc clamps, the RGB inputs are buffered and split
into two signal paths for constructing the luminance and
chrominance outputs.
Luminance Signal Path
The luminance path begins with the luma (Y) matrix. This
matrix combines the RGB inputs to form the brightness infor-
mation in the output video. The inputs are combined by the
standard transformation
Y = 0.299
× R + 0.587 × G + 0.114 × B
This equation describes the sensitivity of the human eye to the
individual component colors, combining them into one value of
brightness. The equation is balanced so that full-scale RGB
inputs give a full-scale Y output.
Following the luma matrix, the composite sync is added. The
user-supplied sync (from the HSYNC and VSYNC inputs) is
latched into the AD725 at half the master clock rate, gating a
sync pulse into the luminance signal. With the exception of
transitioning on the clock edges, the output sync timing will be
in the same format as the input sync timing. The output sync
level will depend on the encoding standard, 286 mV (40 IRE)
for NTSC and 300 mV for PAL (voltages at the pin will be
twice these levels).
In order to be time-aligned with the filtered chrominance signal
path, the luma signal must be delayed before it is output. The
AD725 uses a sampled delay line to achieve this delay.
Following the luma matrix and prior to this delay line, a prefilter
removes higher frequencies from the luma signal to prevent aliasing
by the sampled delay line. This three-pole Bessel low-pass filter has
a –3 dB frequency of 4.85 MHz for NTSC, 6 MHz for PAL.
After the luma prefilter, the bandlimited luma signal is sampled
onto a set of capacitors at twice the master reference clock rate.
After an appropriate delay, the data is read off the delay line,
reconstructing the luma signal. The 8FSC oversampling of this
delay line limits the amount of jitter in the reconstructed sync
output. The clocks driving the delay line are reset once per
video line during the burst flag. The output of the luma path
will remain unchanged during this period and will not respond
to changing RGB inputs.
4FSC
NTSC/PAL
HSYNC
VSYNC
BURST
NTSC/PAL
FSC 90 C
FSC 0 C
4FSC
FSC 90 C/270 C
CSYNC
CSYNC
RED
GREEN
BLUE
CSYNC
Y
U
V
BALANCED
MODULATORS
NTSC/PAL
X2
X2
X2
LUMINANCE
OUTPUT
COMPOSITE
OUTPUT
CHROMINANCE
OUTPUT
CLOCK
AT 8FSC
SYNC
SEPARATOR
QUADRATURE
+4
DECODER
BURST
3-POLE
LP PRE-
FILTER
4-POLE
LPF
4-POLE
LPF
180 C
(PAL ONLY)
RGB-TO-YUV
ENCODING
MATRIX
SAMPLED-
DATA
DELAY LINE
4-POLE
LPF
2-POLE
LP POST-
FILTER
LUMINANCE
TRAP
4FSC CLOCK
V
CLAMP
U
CLAMP
DC
CLAMP
DC
CLAMP
DC
CLAMP
XNOR
POWER AND GROUNDS
+5V
+5V
AGND
DGND
LOGIC
ANALOG
ANALOG
LOGIC
NOTE:
THE LUMINANCE, COMPOSITE AND CHROMINANCE
OUTPUTS ARE AT TWICE NORMAL LEVELS FOR
DRIVING 75
REVERSE-TERMINATED LINES.
Figure 17. Functional Block Diagram
THEORY OF OPERATION
The AD725 is a predominantly analog design, with digital logic
control of timing. This timing logic is driven by a external fre-
quency reference at four times the color subcarrier frequency,
input into the 4FSC pin of the AD725. This frequency should
be 14.318 180 MHz for NTSC encoding, and 17.734 475 MHz
for PAL encoding. The 4FSC input accepts standard TTL logic
levels. The duty cycle of this input clock is not critical, but a fast-
edged clock should be used to prevent excessive jitter in the timing.
The AD725 accepts two common sync standards, composite
sync or separate horizontal and vertical syncs. To use an exter-
nal composite sync, a logic high signal is input to the VSYNC
pin and the composite sync is input to the HSYNC pin. If sepa-
rate horizontal and vertical syncs are available, the horizontal
sync can be input to the HSYNC pin and vertical sync to the
VSYNC pin. Internally, the device XNORs the two sync inputs
to combine them into one negative-going composite sync.
The AD725 detects the falling sync pulse edges, and times their
width. A sync pulse of standard horizontal width will cause the
insertion of a colorburst vector into the chroma modulators at
the proper time. A sync pulse outside the detection range will
cause suppression of the color burst, and the device will enter its
vertical blanking mode. During this mode, the on-chip RC time
constants are verified using the input frequency reference, and
the filter cutoff frequencies are retuned as needed.
The component color inputs, RIN, GIN and BIN, receive ana-
log signals specifying the desired active video output. The full-
scale range of the inputs is 0.714 mV (for either NTSC or PAL
operation). External black level is not important as these inputs
are terminated externally, and then ac coupled to the AD725.
The AD725 contains on-chip RGB input clamps to restore the
dc level on-chip to match its single supply signal path. This dc
restore timing is coincident with the burst flag, starting approxi-
mately 5.5
µs after the falling sync edge and lasting for 2.5 µs.
During this time, the device should be driven with a black input.




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